Celiac Research Tidbits – June 2018

Still getting glutened an ongoing problem

A February study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition suggests that unintentional exposure to gluten may be greater than was previously thought. One of the study’s authors, herself a celiac, talked about how she was still getting sick, and used mass spectrometry to find out that some of the “glutenfree” pasta she was eating in fact contained gluten.
For more information: https://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2018/04/03/598990638/when-going-glutenfree-is-not-enough-new-tests-detect-hidden-exposure


Mono linked to celiac, other disorders

New research from the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center found that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) – best known for causing mononucleosis – also may increase the risks for some people of developing seven other major diseases, including celiac disease. Other linked diseases are: systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes.
For more information: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180416121606.htm


New wheat with less gluten coming out

Arcadia Biosciences, a California-based company, has developed wheat in which gluten has been reduced by around 60%. While this wheat will still not be safe for people with celiac disease, the company is targeting those who have gone gluten-free by choice, or feel they are sensitive – the vast majority of those who are eating GF.
For more information: http://www.worldgrain.com/articles/news_home/World_Grain_News/2018/04/Arcadia_Biosciences_introduces.aspx?ID=%7B9755CB87-3109-4029-9E7D-81E92CC7AFFF%7D


Does baby delivery method impact celiac?

Much research has been published suggesting that babies delivered by caesarean section are more likely to develop celiac disease. However, new research published in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology suggests that this may not be the case. Researchers used data from administrative registers and health administrative registers from Denmark and Norway and linked the data at the individual level. The mode of delivery was not associated with an increased risk of diagnosed celiac disease.

For more information: https://www.dovepress.com/mode-of-delivery-is-not-associated-with-celiacdisease-peer-reviewed-article-CLEP

Researchers Replicate Celiac Disease in Mice

By Dr. Valerie Abadie
Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, University of Montreal

 

Canadian scientists have figured out how to replicate celiac in mice, which could lead to breakthroughs in new treatments.

Celiac disease (CD) is highly prevalent in North America, with around one percent of the Canadian population affected by the disease. The classical pathological changes of CD in the small bowel encompass an increased number of intraepithelial lymphocytes, the presence of autoantibodies, and a destruction of the lining of the small intestine (called villous atrophy). The only effective treatment currently available for CD is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD), yet persistent symptoms and intestinal tissue damage are common among celiac patients that adhere to a GFD.

Non-dietary therapies that would improve patient health and alleviate the social and personal constraints associated with following a GFD are under investigation. However, the development of new therapies has proven challenging because of our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms responsible for damaging the intestinal tissue and the lack of a disease-relevant animal models.

Several animal models of gluten-sensitive disorders have substantially contributed to a better understanding of how gluten intolerance can arise and cause disease, yet none of them represent a suitable mouse model for preclinical validation of new celiac drug targets as they do not display intestinal tissue destruction upon gluten ingestion as seen in active CD patients.

For the past years, with the support of the J.A. Campbell Research Award, the laboratory of Dr. Abadie at the University of Montreal and the CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center in collaboration with the laboratory of Dr. Jabri at the University of Chicago has worked extensively on the characterization of a novel mouse model that develops all the features of CD upon gluten ingestion including the development of villous atrophy.

Following oral gluten administration, the development of anti-gluten immune responses characterized by the expansion of cytotoxic lymphocytes and the development of antibodies against gluten, as well as CD-associated histological abnormalities were monitored and confirmed that this model develops a disease that closely resembles human CD.

In addition, this work confirmed that the induction of CD-like pathology requires the predisposing genetic factor HLA-DQ8 as in humans. This new mouse model is likely to revolutionize research in CD by allowing studying the complex immune mechanisms that lead to villous atrophy. Hence, it is currently used to take the first steps towards the mechanistic characterization of the immunological players involved in the development of villous atrophy in CD, and to better understand how intestinal immune responses towards gluten are deregulated in the context of CD. In particular, Dr. Abadie’s group is studying how B lymphocytes -specialized cells involved in the secretion of antibodies and autoantibodies- contribute to the pathogenesis of CD and whether autoantibodies against the enzyme tissue transglutaminase contribute to the development and/or the exacerbation of the disease. In addition of allowing to considerably gain some fundamental knowledge on CD pathogenesis, this long-awaited physiological animal model of CD represents an invaluable tool for the preclinical validation of new celiac drug targets and to test novel non-dietary therapies.

Off Switch For Celiac Disease?

In case you aren’t a regular Facebook user, we update our Kelowna Celiac Facebook feed several times weekly with articles and news that we think our members will find interesting.

This post from February 24, 2018 certainly received a lot of interest. New research published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry (Feb 23) identifies an enzyme that turns off TG2. That could pave the way for new treatments for celiac disease.

Read more.

Celiac Research Update February 2018

by Mark Johnson, CCA National

Would you eat bread with wheat flour, if it was safe? Scientists in the UK are experimenting with genetically modified wheat that does not include the gluten that would trigger a reaction in a celiac. It’s still very early in the game, and much gene work remains to be done, but wouldn’t that be exciting? Some trials with the new wheat are taking place in Mexico and Spain. It’ll be interesting to see the results? For more information about the GM wheat, please visit: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2148596-genetically-modified-wheat-used-to-make-coeliac-friendly-bread/

Researchers at the University of Toronto studied the blood work of nearly 3,000 people and found that celiac cases were undiagnosed approximately 90% of the time. Ahmed El-Sohemy, a professor of nutritional science at the University of Toronto, wanted to see whether celiac disease results in subpar nutrition because of poorer absorption of vitamins and minerals. To find out, he needed data on the frequency of undiagnosed celiac disease. The findings reinforced that celiac disease occurs in around 1% of the population, but the vast majority who have it do not know they have it. To read more, please visit: http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/celiac-disease-1.4343691

A lot of celiacs feel that cannot tolerate oats. But the science shows only about 4% of us actually have problems with oats. You may feel “glutened” after eating oats but remember that oats are very high in fibre and can cause gastrointestinal issues if you have too much too quickly. Ease back into oats slowly, to allow your system to adapt. And of course stick to safe, clean, uncontaminated oats like those from Only Oats and Cream Hill Estates. Oats are a healthy and delicious option for us – enjoy!

Researchers at the University of Surrey in the UK are looking to gain an understanding of how people who have one sibling with an autoimmune disease feel about and manage their own health. This is an area of psychology which has not been studied very much before. If you know someone who would like to participate, please direct them to https://surreyfahs.eu.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_8dI0Vbrvoo1iENn.

According to a study conducted by the University of Chicago and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, infection with reovirus, a common but harmless virus, may trigger the immune system response to gluten that leads to celiac disease. The study was published in the journal Science and it suggests that certain viruses play a role in the development of autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease and type 1 diabetes. This raises a possibility that a vaccine could be developed in future to treat celiac disease! For more information, please visit: https://www.ndtv.com/food/scientists-discover-another-reason-for-celiac-disease-besides-genetics-1787157

Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital are currently recruiting 500 infants (250 in the US and 250 elsewhere) to participate in their new study that plans to look at the various factors that affect celiac disease’s development. A skilled group of doctors and scientists will conduct a study called Celiac Disease Genomic Environmental Microbiome and Metabolic (CDGEMM), in order to understand and identify the various factors that are associated with the development of celiac disease. The study is led by Dr. Alessio Fasano and they’ll be hoping to find a pattern, which would lead the team to create a treatment and predict the disease’s development. For more information, please visit http://www.cdgemm.org

Research published recently showed that concludes that oral symptoms can precede gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac disease, and be useful in diagnosis. In addition to celiac, oral problems can show up in the presence of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease. These symptoms may be key to identifying celiac earlier on, to reduce the current average delay of 11 years between the onset of symptoms and a firm diagnosis. To read more about this research, please visit https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29167716

New Treatment for Celiac Disease?

WebMD is reporting some interesting news about a forthcoming mice based research study.

The news? Blocking an inflammatory protein called interleukin-15 (IL-15) may treat symptoms of celiac disease and prevent the development of celiac disease in certain at-risk people.

The study finds that IL-15 may be a major player in driving the inflammatory response in celiac disease. Therefore if you block it, you can tolerate gluten.

Even better, medications that block IL-15 are already being developed for other inflammatory diseases.

As usual, more research needs to be done.

Read the full article in WebMD.